History of electron microscopy at the Faculty of Medicine in Niš
Laboratory for Electron Microscopy (LEM) was formed at the end of 1969 at the Institute of pathology, Faculty of Medicine in Niš, and started to function at the beginning of 1970. Since 1990 onwards, it has been a part of the newly formed Institute for Biomedical Research (IBR) in the Faculty building.
The first transmission electron microscope (TEM T-7) was purchased in 1969, and a new one was bought in 1979 (JEOL JEM 100CX). After moving of the transmission electron microscopes, together with the equipment, to the IBR, one scanning electron microscope (SEM) was bought (JEOL JSM 5300), and equipped afterwards with an energy-dispersive spectrometer (EDS). After equipping the microscopes with accessory equipment for biologic specimen preparation (and preparation of ceramics, metals, etc.), the LEM was formed as a technical and methodological research unit of the IBR, becoming a unique research lab of this kind in the region and Serbia.
Significance and place of electron microscopy in SRCB research
Electron microscopy, as a morphological discipline, is used in the research and analysis of ultrastructural characteristics and phenomena of biological and other matter, such as metals, ceramics, polymers, biocomposites, semiconductor components.
Within SRCB, electron microscopy is functionally closely associated with other organizational units, i.e. labs and departments, such as the Lab for Experimental Pathology and Immunology, Department for Cell and Tissue Engineering, Department of Experimental Medicine, Lab for Functional Genomics and Proteomics, etc.
Person responsibe for LEM
Dipl. inž. Miroslav Miljković: (firstname.lastname@example.org)
One of the fundamental aims of LEM has been to contribute to networking of research institutions that use EM technique in their work and to offer services to interested parties.
Possible EM users
There have not been many techniques with such a broad range of possible applications as electron microscopy. Since EM equipment is very expensive, it is not widely available to potential users. Computerization and digitalization further expands the range of EM use. Users of EM are primarily as follows: doctors, to diagnose various diseases; dentists, to examine teeth and biocompatible materials; biologists, to examine cellular and tissue ultrastructures; technologists, to examine materials used in particular processes; engineers in various fields (electronic, mechanical, civil engineering), to examine ultrastructural properties of the materials used in their professions, etc.
– Transmission electron microscope JEOL JEM 100CX
– Scanning electron microscope JEOL JSM 5300 equipped with EDS QX 2000
– Ultramicrotome LKB
– Vacuum steamer
– Cathode scattering device
– Research light microscope LEICA DMR
Ing. Miroslav Miljkovic, Expert associate
Dr Milena Potic-Floranovic, Expert associate
Dragan Ilic, lab technician
Methods and analyses
The following investigations can be done in the LEM:
– for diagnostic purposes: nephropathologic studies, characterization of various tumors, characterization of microorganisms;
– in dentistry: study of applied methods of preparation of dental cavities and use of biocomposite materials;
– histopathology and biology: examination of ultrastructure of different human, animal, and plant cells and tissues;
– material characteristics: studies of biomaterial (biocomposite) properties, used in regenerative medicine and tissue engineering, examination of ultrastructure of materials used in certain technologic processes, in electronics, mechanical and civil engineering, etc.
Some of the results obtained in the LEM have been published in a large number of national and international journals and reported at numerous scientific meetings.
Selected published papers:
Selected reports at scientific meetings:
The LEM is currently involved in multiple national and international projects:
Projects by the Ministry of Education, Science, and Technological Development of the Republic of Serbia, 2011/2014:
1. Virtual human skeletal and articular system and its use in preclinical and clinical practice (Head: prof. dr M. Trajanovic) – subproject: Osteoreparation models (Head: prof. dr S. Najman).
2. Synthesis, processing, and characterization of nanostructural materials used in the areas of energy, mechanical engineering, environmental protection and biomedicine (Head: B. Matovic, principal research fellow, INN Vinca, Belgrade).
3. Use of functionalized carbon nanotubes and nanoparticles of gold in the preparation of dendritic cells in tumor therapy (Head: Academician Miodrag Colic).
Projects by the Ministry of Education, Science, and Technological Development of the Republic of Serbia, 2006/2010:
4. Biocompatibility and possible uses of biomaterials based on hydroxyapatite and biopolymers in tissue reparation – an experimental and clinical study (Head: prof. dr V. Savic).
5. Regeneration of skeletal tissues supported by biomaterials as tissue scaffolds – in vivo and in vitro study (Head: prof. dr S. Najman).
Projects by the Ministry of Science and Environmental Protection of the Republic of Serbia, 2001/2005:
6. Biocompatibility and use of composite materials based on hydroxyapatite in osteo-reconstructive surgery – experimental and clinical study (Head: prof. dr V. Savic).
Projects by the Ministry of Science and Environmental Protection of the Republic of Serbia, 1996/2000:
7. Synthesis of non-oxide ceramic powders using Si C and Si 3N4 SOL-GEL procedures (Head: prof. dr V. Savic).
8. Clinical and experimental research of pathogenesis of acute and chronic renal injury (Head: prof. dr V. Savic).
9. Development of biocomposite materials for use in otorhinolaryngology and maxillofacial surgery (Head. prof. dr M. Mitkovic).
Projects by the Ministry of Science and Environmental Protection of the Republic of Serbia, 1991/1995:
10. Examination of changes in the plasma membrane of mesangial and epithelial cells in glomerulonephritis under the action of various agents (Head: prof. dr V. Savic).
11. Nanostructural non-oxide ceramic and carbon materials and their composites
12. Development of biocomposite materials for use in otorhinolaryngology and maxillofacial surgery
13. Prognosis of material characteristics from the point of view structure-characteristics-synthesis
14. Technology and development of microelectronic components
15. Research of correlations in the triad synthesis-structure-characteristics for function materials
16. Nanostructural solid-state solutions in electronics and alternative energy sources
17. Study of trace metals in various geologic materials, including fossil fuels, soil and groundwater
18. Research of etiology, pathogenesis, prevention, and therapy of Balkan endemic nephropathy and urinary tumors
19. The laboratory took part in the Tempus project “Advanced materials for use in electronics – multidisciplinary courses for postgraduates”, no. JEP-2545-91, stopped in 1992 because of sanctions imposed upon Serbia
20. The laboratory, as a part of the University of Nish, took part in the European Action COST 539, “Electroceramics produced on the basis of nanopowders using innovative methods” (ELENA)